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roman civilization history

roman civilization history

Conflicts continued for the following two years. In the reign of Philip the Arab (r. 244–249), Rome celebrated the thousandth anniversary of her founding by Romulus and Remus with the Saecular Games. Read More Romulus and Remus Severus was killed under command of Maxentius on September 16, 307. He was acclaimed augustus on September 28 and soon extended his control to both Thrace and Bithynia. The year 476 is generally accepted as the formal end of the western Roman Empire. On May 1, 305, Diocletian and Maximian abdicated in favour of their caesares. At first everything went as planned, but then disaster struck. Finally, although Aurelian had played a significant role in restoring the Empire's borders from external threat, more fundamental problems remained. In the west he gave considerable favouritism to Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) in which he granted Latin Rights to over three hundred towns and cities, promoting a new era of urbanisation throughout the western (formerly barbarian) provinces. Titus, Vespasian's successor, quickly proved his merit, although his short reign was marked by disaster, including the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Pompeii. His edict of toleration in 362 ordered the reopening of pagan temples and the reinstitution of alienated temple properties, and, more problematically for the Christian Church, the recalling of previously exiled Christian bishops. Sejanus also began to consolidate his own power; in 31 he was named co-consul with Tiberius and married Livilla, the emperor's niece. [35] These were preceded by the appearance of Roman glasswares in Chinese tombs, the earliest piece found at Guangzhou (along the coast of the South China Sea) and dating to the 1st century BC. Most of what history remembers of Caligula comes from Suetonius, in his book Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Titus, the eldest son of Vespasian, had been groomed to rule. Constantine and his co-augustus Licinius legalised Christianity definitively in 313 in the so-called Edict of Milan. Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marked the end of the Crisis of the Third Century. Whatever the case, he was greatly mourned and missed. Julian himself was not a traditional pagan. His eventual defeat and suicide left Constantius as sole emperor until the nomination of his cousin Constantius Gallus as his caesar and co-emperor. The reign of Julian, who under the influence of his adviser Mardonius attempted to restore Classical Roman and Hellenistic religion, only briefly interrupted the succession of Christian emperors of the Constantinian dynasty. p. 29. – 1643 C.E. "[28][29], Since he had no heir, Nero's suicide was followed by a brief period of civil war, known as the "Year of the Four Emperors". "The Decline and Fall of the Western Roman Empire." With Vespasian, one of the first emperors outside the dynasty, Caesar evolved from a family name to the imperial title caesar. He gave a farewell speech, in which he refused to name a successor. The Julio-Claudians (30 BC-68 AD) He was proclaimed emperor by the troops of Emesa, his hometown, who were instigated to do so by Elagabalus's grandmother, Julia Maesa. During his rule, Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and increasing the cultural capital of the empire. The emperors of this period were Nerva (96–98), Trajan (98–117), Hadrian (117–138), Antoninus Pius (138–161) and Marcus Aurelius (161–180), each one adopted by his predecessor as his successor during the former's lifetime. Constantius's troops in Eboracum immediately proclaimed his son Constantine the Great as augustus. 146 BC-30 BC), Roman Empire History: Other legions were united, a fact hinted by the title Gemina (Twin). Unlike the much more successful joint reign of Marcus Aurelius and his brother Lucius Verus in the previous century, relations were hostile between the two Severid brothers from childhood. The triumvirate ended in 32 BC, torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members: Lepidus was forced into exile and Antony, who had allied himself with his lover Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, committed suicide in 30 BC following his defeat at the Battle of Actium (31 BC) by the fleet of Octavian. Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire. In AD 13, a law was passed which extended Augustus' powers over the provinces to Tiberius,[22] so that Tiberius' legal powers were equivalent to, and independent from, those of Augustus.[22]. This allowed him to secure the Rhine frontier. Cassius proclaimed himself Roman Emperor and took the provinces of Egypt and Syria as his part of the empire. Tiberius was the son of Livia, the third wife of Octavian, by her first marriage to Tiberius Nero. Julian would serve as the sole emperor for two years. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian imperator ("commander") thus beginning the Principate, the first epoch of Roman imperial history usually dated from 27 BC to AD 284; they later awarded him the name Augustus, "the venerated". Another issue was the sheer size of the Empire, which made it difficult for a single autocratic ruler to effectively manage multiple threats at the same time. Their three immediate successors were all descended both from the gens Claudia, through Tiberius' brother Nero Claudius Drusus, and from gens Julia, either through Julia the Elder, Augustus' daughter from his first marriage (Caligula and Nero), or through Augustus' sister Octavia Minor (Claudius). The Flavians (69 AD-96 AD) Because of the convenience of this many believe that Nero was ultimately responsible for the fire, spawning the legend of him fiddling while Rome burned which is almost certainly untrue. In addition, he often appeared in full military regalia as an imperator, an affront to the idea of what the Principate-era emperor's power was based upon: the emperor as the princeps. Several legions, particularly those with members of doubtful loyalties, were simply disbanded. Seeing that her grandson's outrageous behavior could mean the loss of power, Julia Maesa persuaded Elagabalus to accept his cousin Alexander Severus as caesar (and thus the nominal emperor-to-be).

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